AskDefine | Define kopeck

Dictionary Definition

kopeck n : 100 kopecks equal 1 ruble [syn: kopek, copeck]

User Contributed Dictionary

English

Etymology

etyl ru копейка from Middle etyl ru копейка, from копьё (from the image of a rider with a spear on the coins minted by Moscow after the capture of Novgorod in 1478).

Noun

  1. Russian monetary unit, equal to one one-hundredth of a ruble.

Translations

Extensive Definition

The ruble or rouble (in Russian: рубль rubl' ) is a unit of currency. It is currently the currency unit of Belarus, Russia, and Transnistria, and was the currency unit of several other countries, notably countries influenced by Russia and the Soviet Union. One ruble is divided into 100 kopeks or copecks.

Coinage/paper bill values

Paper bills:
5 rubles, 10 rubles, 50 rubles, 100 rubles, 500 rubles, 1000 rubles, 5000 rubles, 10,000 rubles, 50,000 rubles, 100,000 rubles, 500,000 rubles Coins:
1 kopeck, 5 kopecks, 10 kopecks, 20 kopecks, 50 kopecks, 1 ruble, 2 rubles, 5 rubles

Etymology

Origin

According to one version, the word "ruble" is derived from the Russian verb рубить, rubit, i.e., to chop. Historically, "ruble" was a piece of a certain weight chopped off a silver ingot (grivna), hence the name. Another more convincing version is that the name comes from the Russian noun рубец, rubets, i.e., the seam that is left around the coin after casting: silver was added to the cast in two goes. Therefore the word ruble means "a cast with a seam".
It was the Russian equivalent of the mark, a measurement of weight for silver and gold used in medieval western Europe. The weight of one ruble was equal to the weight of one grivna.
In Russian, a folk name for "ruble", tselkovy (целковый, wholesome), is known, which is a shortening of the "целковый рубль" ("tselkovyi ruble"), i.e. a wholesome, uncut ruble.
The word kopek, kopeck, copeck or kopeyka (in Russian: копейка, kopeyka) derives from the Russian kop'yo (копьё) – a spear. The first kopek coins, minted at Novgorod and Pskov from about 1535 onwards, show a horseman with a spear. From the 1540s onwards the horseman bears a crown, and doubtless the intention was to represent Ivan the Terrible who was Grand Prince of all Russia until 1547 and Tsar thereafter.
It is worth noting that Russia was the first country in the world to introduce a decimal monetary system (1704) where one ruble was equal to 100 kopeks.

English spelling

Both the spellings "ruble" and "rouble" are used in English. The form "rouble" is preferred by the Oxford English Dictionary, but the earliest use recorded in English is the now completely obsolete "robble". The form "rouble" probably derives from the transliteration into French used among the Tsarist aristocracy. There is some tendency for North American authors to use "ruble" and other English speakers to use "rouble", and also some tendency for older sources to use "rouble" and more recent ones to use "ruble", but neither tendency is absolute. An accurate, but ungainly, English transliteration is rubl.

Plurals in Russian

The Russian plurals that may be seen on the actual currency are modified according to Russian grammar. Numbers 1, 21, 31 etc. will be followed by nominative singular рубль, копейка. Numbers 2-4, 22-24, 32-34 etc. will be followed by genitive singular рубля, копейки. Numbers 5-20, 25-30, 35-40 etc. will be followed by genitive plural рублей, копеек.

Other languages

seealso Soviet ruble In several languages spoken in Russia and the former Soviet Union, the currency name has no etymological relation with rouble. Especially in Turkic languages or languages influenced by them, the rouble is often known (also officially) as som or sum, (meaning pure), or manat (from Russian moneta, meaning coin).
Soviet banknotes had their value printed in the languages of 15 republics of the Soviet Union.

List of rubles

Current

Obsolete

(This list may not contain all historical rubles, especially rubles issued by sub-national entities)
kopeck in Asturian: Rublu
kopeck in Belarusian: Рубель
kopeck in Belarusian (Tarashkevitsa): Рубель
kopeck in Catalan: Ruble
kopeck in Czech: Rubl
kopeck in German: Rubel
kopeck in Estonian: Rubla
kopeck in Spanish: Rublo
kopeck in Esperanto: Rublo
kopeck in French: Rouble
kopeck in Korean: 루블
kopeck in Croatian: Rublja
kopeck in Italian: Rublo
kopeck in Hebrew: רובל
kopeck in Hungarian: Rubel
kopeck in Malay (macrolanguage): Ruble
kopeck in Dutch: Roebel
kopeck in Japanese: ルーブル
kopeck in Norwegian: Rubel
kopeck in Polish: Rubel
kopeck in Russian: Рубль (значения)
kopeck in Romanian: Rublă (dezambiguizare)
kopeck in Slovenian: Rubelj
kopeck in Serbian: Рубља
kopeck in Finnish: Rupla
kopeck in Swedish: Rubel
kopeck in Chinese: 卢布

References

Privacy Policy, About Us, Terms and Conditions, Contact Us
Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2
Material from Wikipedia, Wiktionary, Dict
Valid HTML 4.01 Strict, Valid CSS Level 2.1